This paper provides a foundation for modeling the set of activities and their relationships bywhich systems are engineered, or, more broadly, by which products and services are developed.It provides background, motivations, and formal definitions for process modeling inthis specialized environment. We treat the process itself as a kind of system that can beengineered. However, while product systems must be created, the process systems for developingcomplex products must, to a greater extent, be discovered and induced. Then, they tendto be reused, either formally as standard processes, or informally by the workforce. Wedistinguish and clarify several important concepts in modeling processes, including: productdevelopment versus repetitive business processes, descriptive versus prescriptive processes,activities as actions versus deliverables as interactions, standard versus deployedprocesses, centralized versus decentralized process modeling, “as is” versus “to be” processmodeling, and multiple phases in product development. We also present a basically simpleyet highly extendable and generalized framework for modeling product development processes.The framework enables building a single model to support a variety of purposes,including project planning (scheduling, budgeting, resource loading, and risk management)and control, and it provides the scaffolding for knowledge management and organizationallearning, among numerous other uses.
BROWNING, Tyson R.; FRICKE, Ernst; NEGELE, Herbert. Key concepts in modeling product development processes. Systems Engineering, v. 9, n. 2, p. 104-128, 2006.